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Specific Heart Diseases
Angina
Pain or pressure in the chest, back or jaw indicates that the heart muscle isn't receiving enough oxygen. Angina isn't a heart attack, but does mean that you have an increased risk of heart attack.
Arrhythmia (Irregular Heart Beat)
An abnormal (too fast, too slow or irregular) heartbeat rhythm may indicate a serious problem. There are many types of arrhythmias with a variety of causes, detection methods and treatments.

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a type of arrhythmia in which two small upper chambers of the heart, the atria, quiver instead of beating effectively. Symptoms vary from minor to disturbing, but AF can lead to stroke .
Coronary Artery Disease
This is the general term for a condition that blocks the coronary arteries, reducing blood flow through them to the heart muscle. It can take several forms, including silent ischemia (reduced blood flow to the heart that causes very little pain or symptoms), angina and heart attack.

Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary artery disease. This condition is characterized by thickening and hardening of arteries, often caused by deposits of fat, cholesterol and other substances on the arteries' inner lining. These deposits, called plaque, make an artery narrower, so less blood can flow through. Lack of blood flow to the heart can cause a heart attack; lack of blood flow to the brain can cause a stroke.

High Cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia)  means you have excessive cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a fat consisting of several components. Although too much cholesterol in the blood rarely causes symptoms by itself, it can clog the arteries to your heart, which increases your risk of serious heart disease and heart attack. (It can also clog the arteries to the brain, increasing the risk of stroke.
Cardiomyopathy
This disease damages the heart muscle, weakening its ability to pump blood and sometimes causes arrhythmias. There are various types of cardiomyopathy with various causes, including infections. Some forms strike younger people.
Congestive Heart Failure
CHF means the heart doesn't pump as well as it should, causing the patient to retain fluids, often leading to swollen legs and ankles and congestion in the lungs. It's usually caused by a gradual weakening of the heart brought on by various conditions, such as clogged arteries or high blood pressure.
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
When blood flow to part of the heart (the myocardium) is reduced or stops, it causes that part to be damaged or die. The damage is often reversible if stoppage is brief, and the heart eventually receives the blood, oxygen and nutrients it needs.
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
This is not a heart disease in the conventional sense-however it strongly increases the risk of serious heart disease and stroke. It occurs that when pressure of blood flowing in the large arteries is too high. For adults "too high" is generally defined as equal to or greater than 140 over 90 (140 mm Hg systolic pressure and 90 mm Hg diastolic pressure).
Valvular Heart Disease
This includes any dysfunction or defect of one or more of the hearts four valves. In a normally functioning heart the valves act as gates that open and close to keep blood flowing in one direction, at the right time. There are a number of different types of valvular heart disease including valvular stenosis, valvular regurgitation and mitral valve prolapse.